Latest From Ischemia: Worse Outcomes in Patients With Intermediate Left Main Disease on CCTA
Patients in the landmark ISCHEMIA trial with intermediate left main disease had a greater extent of coronary artery disease on invasive angiography, indicating greater atherosclerotic burden. They also had worse prognosis with a higher risk of cardiovascular events.
“Many times, we are looking at results as to whether patients have left main disease or not,” Sripal Bangalore, MD, said during the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography & Interventions virtual annual scientific sessions. “Here, we are showing that it’s not black and white; there are shades of gray. If a patient has intermediate left main disease, the prognosis is worse. That’s very important information we need to convey to our referrals also, because many times they may just look at the bottom line and say, ‘there is no left main disease.’ But here, we’re seeing that even having intermediate left main disease has significantly worse prognosis. We need to take that seriously.”
Prior studies show that patients with significant left main disease (LMD; defined as 50% or greater stenosis on coronary CT angiography [CCTA]) have a high risk of cardiovascular events and guidelines recommend revascularization to improve survival, said Dr. Bangalore, an interventional cardiologist at New York University Langone Health. However, the impact of intermediate LMD (defined as 25%-49% stenosis on CCTA) on outcomes is unclear.
Members of the ISCHEMIA (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches) research group randomized 5,179 participants to an initial invasive or conservative strategy. The main results showed that immediate revascularization in patients with stable ischemic heart disease provided no reduction in cardiovascular endpoints through 4 years of follow-up, compared with initial optimal medical therapy alone.
“Discordance” Revealed in Imaging Modalities
For the current analysis, named the ISCHEMIA Intermediate LM Substudy, those who underwent coronary CCTA comprise the LMD substudy cohort. The objective was to evaluate clinical and quality of life outcomes in patients with and without intermediate left main disease on coronary CT and to evaluate the impact of treatment strategy on those outcomes across subgroups.
At baseline, these patients were categorized into those with and without intermediate LMD as determined by a core lab. Patients with LMD of 50% or greater, those with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and those with nonevaluable or missing data on LM stenosis were excluded.
Among the 3,913 ISCHEMIA participants who underwent CCTA, 3,699 satisfied the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 962 (26%) had intermediate LMD and 2,737 (74%) did not.
The researchers observed no significant differences in baseline characteristics between patients with and without LMD. However, patients with intermediate LMD tended to be older, and a greater proportion had hypertension and diabetes. Stress test characteristics were also similar between patients with and without LMD. However, patients with intermediate LMD tended toward a greater severity of severe ischemia.